Schisandra Fruit (Schisandra-Chinesis)
Potential of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. in Human Health and Nutrition: A Review of Current Knowledge and Therapeutic Perspectives
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (SCE) is a plant with high potential for beneficial health effects, confirmed by molecular studies. Its constituents exert anti-cancer effects through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inhibition of invasion and metastasis in cancer cell lines and experimental animals. SCE displays antimicrobial effects against several pathogenic strains. It has anti-diabetic potential, supported by hypoglycemic activity. A diet rich in SCE improves pancreatic functions, stimulates insulin secretion, and reduces complications in diabetic animals. SCE prevents lipid accumulation and differentiation of preadipocytes, indicating its anti-obesity potential. SCE exerts a protective effect against skin photoaging, osteoarthritis, sarcopenia, senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction, and improves physical endurance and cognitive/behavioural functions, which can be linked with its general anti-aging potency. In food technology, SCE is applied as a preservative, and as an additive to increase the flavour, taste, and nutritional value of food. In summary, SCE displays a variety of beneficial health effects, with no side effects. Further research is needed to determine the molecular mechanisms of SCE action. First, the constituents responsible for its beneficial effects should be isolated and identified, and recommended as preventative nutritional additives, or considered as therapeutics.
S. chinensis is known as a Chinese-originated important phytochemical source, with many beneficial biological activities. About 8% of the world adult population suffer from type 2 diabetes, almost 13% are obese, and 39% are overweight. Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, responsible for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Some of the reasons for this are low fruit and vegetable intake, bacterial and viral infections, and obesity/overweight. Additionally, cancer, in many cases, can be considered as an aging disease, though the mechanisms underpinning that relationship remain unclear.
Current knowledge of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) as a medicinal plant species: a review on the bioactive components, pharmacological properties, analytical and biotechnological studies
chisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.) is a plant species whose fruits have been well known in Far Eastern medicine for a long time. However, schisandra seems to be a plant still underestimated in contemporary therapy still in the countries of East Asia. The article presents latest available information on the chemical composition of this plant species. Special attention is given to dibenzo cyclooctadiene lignans. In addition, recent studies of the biological activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans and schisandra fruit extracts are recapitulated. The paper gives a short resume of their beneficial effects in biological systems in vitro, in animals, and in humans, thus underlining their medicinal potential. The cosmetic properties are depicted, too. The analytical methods used for assaying schisandra lignans in the scientific studies and also in industry are also presented. Moreover, special attention is given to the information on the latest biotechnological studies of this plant species. The intention of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the huge potential of the pharmacological relevance of S. chinensis.
Presented review proved, that S. chinensis is very plausible object of the different scientific studies. Chemical analyses have been concerned with the isolation and identification of new structures of secondary metabolites occurring in the fruits and also in the leaves and stems of S. chinensis, and in other Schisandra species. The current pharmacological researches confirm the already known activities of S. chinensis and report on new potential health-promoting activities of this species and its usefulness also in cosmetology. The studies have been focused on fruit extracts and also on the activities of individual dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans. The developed analytical methods, which are the best tool for qualification and quantification assays of schisandra lignans, are also becoming increasingly more precise, also important are elaborated new techniques of extraction and purification of samples. Moreover, the phytochemical studies are being expanded and enriched with biotechnological studies. The biotechnological methods of producing dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans (especially micropropagarion and endogenic accumulation) that are so valuable from a pharmacological point of view seem to provide a very promising alternative way of obtaining these metabolites in the future.