Passionflower (Passiflora Incarnata)
Passiflora incarnata attenuation of neuropathic allodynia and vulvodynia apropos GABA-ergic and opioidergic antinociceptive and behavioural mechanisms
Passiflora incarnata is widely used as an anxiolytic and sedative due to its putative GABAergic properties. Passiflora incarnata L. methanolic extract (PI-ME) was evaluated in an animal model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic allodynia and vulvodynia in rats along with antinociceptive, anxiolytic and sedative activities in mice in order to examine possible underlying mechanisms.
In conclusion, the methanolic extract of P. incarnata possesses peripheral and central phasic as well as tonic antinociceptive activity mediated through modulation of GABAA and opioid receptors (GABAergic and opioidergic mechanisms shown in Fig. 10) which are disclosed by their naloxone and PTZ reversibility. The findings also manifest anxiolytic-like and higher dose sedative activity of the extract, resulting from GABAergic stimulation as indicated by their sensitivity to PTZ inhibition. The extract also exhibited significant mechanical anti-allodynic and dynamic anti-vulvodynic effects (Fig. 10) that may be attributable at least in part to the oleamide content and a cannabinoid-like action [110, 113, 114]. The outcomes from our study advocate an effectiveness of P. incarnata in the treatment of various neuropathic pain conditions. However, further studies are warranted in order to determine a more precise association between the active constituents responsible for the analgesic, anxiolytic and sedative effects of P. incarnata as well as the specific molecular mechanisms underlying its actions on allodynia and vulvodynia.
Protective Effect of Standardized Extract of Passiflora incarnata Flower in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Disease
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Flavonoids exert their antioxidant effects by neutralizing all types of oxidizing radicals including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Passiflora incarnata Linn. (Passifloraceae) is an important plant used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various disorders of the CNS and is a rich source of flavonoids.
The above results conclude that BEPIF possesses neuroprotective effect as evident from its antiparkinsonian and memory enhancing activity. Further, it has been observed that BEPIF possesses significant antioxidant activity which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. Thus, it may be concluded that butanolic extract of Passiflora incarnata flowers has neuroprotective effect in neurodegerarive diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease which is mediated through its antioxidant potential.