Lion’s Mane (Hericium Erinaceus)

STUDY 1

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats

Abstract

The worldwide prevalence of diabetes for all age groups was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and it is projected to be 4.4% in 2030 [1]. Especially in developed and developing countries, type 2 diabetes mellitus is now considered a worldwide epidemic, and is characterized by defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action that causes a chronic hyperglycaemic state [2]. A long-term metabolic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism is one of the most important causes of complications, such as angiopathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, deficiency in the antioxidant defense system, and lipid profile disorders [3-5]. There is considerable evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress caused by the production of free radical is a recognized participant in the development and progression of diabetes and its complications [6]. Hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic glycosylation and activation of the polyol pathway, resulting in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to structural damages of liver, kidney, and pancreas [7]. These free radicals also destroy pancreatic β-cells that produce and secrete insulin [8]. There are many protective enzymes against ROS, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT). Therefore, antioxidants have been considered as the treatment in diabetes. Hericium erinaceus, as a commonly used medicine or food, has attracted much investigation due to its health effects when used as a home remedy for some diseases.

Conclusion

According to our present findings, AEHE possessed a significant anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effect in STZ- induced diabetic rats. AEHE also can restore the antioxidant status in treated diabetic rats. However, further research is needed to gain a better understanding of its potential therapeutic action, the implicated phytochemical constituents and the exact mechanism of action.

STUDY 2

Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus

Abstract

Hericium erinaceus (HEP) is a notable medicinal fungus grown in China and other oriental countries. Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of HEP in a mouse model. After one week of acclimation, mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose HEP-treated group, a moderate-dose HEP-treated group, and a high-dose HEP-treated group. The treated groups received HEP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received saline solution. Following treatment for 28 days, the mice performed a forced swimming test until they were exhausted, then the exhaustive swimming time was recorded along with certain biochemical parameters related to fatigue, including blood lactic acid (BLA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), tissue glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These results suggested that HEP has significant anti-fatigue activity by decreasing BLA, SUN and MDA content, as well as increasing tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Based on these results, this study provided theoretical support for the application of HEP in the field of sports nutrition.

Conclusion

The results of the present study suggest that HEP possesses significant anti-fatigue activity by decreasing BLA, SUN and MDA content, and increasing tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Based on these results, this study provides theoretical support for the application of HEP in the field of sports nutrition.

STUDY 3

Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities

Abstract

Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention.

Conclusion

The present study provides reference data for the application of H. erinaceus in the pharmaceutical industry and for disease prevention. Additionally, the broad medicinal values of mushrooms such as H. erinaceus have a promising future in alternative medicine. To understand the mechanisms behind the properties of the active ingredients, further study is required. Furthermore, a greater understanding of the structures and functions of the components that are responsible for the observed antioxidant activities is also required.

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