Reishi Mushrooms (Ganoderma Lucidum)
Emerging Roles of Ganoderma Lucidum in Anti-Aging
Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus that has been viewed as a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been revealed that several extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, such as Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and some bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although the use of Ganoderma lucidum as an elixir has been around for thousands of years, studies revealing its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg. Besides which, the kinds of extractions or components being comfrimed to be anti-aging are too few compared with the large amounts of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect and its clinical application.
In conclusion, a variety of Ganoderma lucidum extracts have definite anti-aging properties and they exert their anti-aging effects mainly through anti-oxidation, immunomodulation and anti-neurodegeneration. G. lucidum has been viewed as an elixir since Chinese ancient times. Apart from its longevity effects, many studies have tried to demonstrate the other healthy promoting properties such as anti-diabetes and anti-cancer based on its anti-senescence effect. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to obtain a full picture of all the anti-aging ingredients and extracts in G. lucidum. Additional evidence is required to provide a comprehensive explanation of the mechanisms underlying the anti-aging property of G. lucidum.
Antitumour, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Terpenoids and Polysaccharides: A Review
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) is a popular medicinal mushroom and has been used in oriental medicine because of its promoting effects on health and life expectancy. G. lucidum contains various compounds with a high grade of biological activty, which increase the immunity and show antitumour, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Several of these substances belong to the triterpenoids and polysaccharides classes. Proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, etc. are also present. In the present review, an extensive overview of the presence of antitumour, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase compounds in G. lucidum extracts will be given, along with an evaluation of their therapeutic effects.
It has been proven that G. lucidum contains a wide variety of bioactive components that promote several beneficial effects on health. Consequently, most studies to date have focused on this class of compounds. The structural variability of these isolated compounds shows varying capacity for carrying biological information. In the present review, the antitumour, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase effects of isolated compounds from G. lucidum have been taken into consideration. There are two main groups, triterpenes and polysaccharides, that have been researched in detail. Triterpenoids have been reported as having anti-hypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective and anti-histaminic effects, along with antitumour and anti-angiogenic activity.
Ganoderma lucidum beta 1,3/1,6 glucan as an immunomodulator in inflammation induced by a high-cholesterol diet
Binding of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) with the receptor results in a series of signal transfers (signalling cascades), which activates the transcription factors for regulating inflammation. Excess cholesterol intake leads to an increase in the distance between fat cells and capillaries, which may cause hypoxia in the fat tissue of obese mice. This hypoxia induces the death of fat cells, resulting in the inflammation of adipose tissue or an increase in the inflammatory gene expression associated with obesity.
The effect of a high-cholesterol diet in the inflammatory response was observed in heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and colon tissues through histopathological evaluations. The presented evidence demonstrates that the inflammation response in the high-cholesterol diet group was much higher than in the other groups and the beta 1,3/1,6 glucan reduces inflammation in obese mice fed a high-cholesterol diet.Although G. lucidum beta 1,3/1,6-glucan acts as an immunomodulator and reduces the inflammatory response, the evidence does not directly support reduction in the accumulation of cholesterol in the organs.