Reishi Gold Mushrooms (Ganoderma Curtisii)

STUDY 1

MAIN STEROLS FROM Ganoderma curtisii AND Ganoderma applanatum FROM HIDALGO STATE, MEXICO

Abstract

Ganoderma is a group of species of commercial interest and with therapeutic properties. In Mexico there are at least 20 species, including G. curtisii and G. applanatum, which grow in the state of Hidalgo. There are not report on the chemical composition of G. curtisii, while G. applanatum, collected in other countries, has several chemical studies. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize the main metabolites in these species to contribute to the chemical knowledge of the genus. The separation by chromatographic techniques of the hexane extracts led to the isolation of the known sterols ergosterol, estelasterol, ergosterol peroxide, and 5α-ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one. Their relative proportion in extracts was analysed by HPLC and their characterization was carried out by their physical and spectroscopic properties, mainly by 1D and 2D NMR, and these were compared with described data. These sterols have been reported in Ganoderma, and possess antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activity

Conclusion

El estudio químico de Ganoderma curtisii condujo a la caracterización de sus principales metabolitos, los esteroles 1–3, mientras que en G. applanatum , a parte de los compuestos 1–3, también se identificó la cetona 4. Estos compuestos se han obtenido de diferentes especies de Ganoderma y poseen importante actividad antioxidante, anticancerígena, antitumoral y antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Esta investigación es la primera que se realiza sobre especies de Ganoderma que crecen en el estado de Hidalgo, México, y contribuye al conocimiento de la composición química del género.

STUDY 2

Elucidating “lucidum”: Distinguishing the diverse laccate Ganoderma species of the United States

Abstract

Ganoderma is a large, diverse and globally-distributed genus in the Basidiomycota that includes species causing a white rot form of wood decay on a variety of tree species. For the past century, many studies of Ganoderma in North America and other regions of the world have used the name G. lucidum sensu lato for any laccate (shiny or varnished) Ganoderma species growing on hardwood trees or substrates. Molecular studies have established that G. lucidum sensu stricto (Curtis) Karst is native to Europe and some parts of China. To determine the species of the laccate Ganoderma that are present in the United States, we studied over 500 collections from recently collected samples and herbarium specimens from hardwoods, conifers, and monocots. A multilocus phylogeny using ITS, tef1α, rpb1 and rpb2 revealed three well-supported clades, similar to previously reported findings. From the U.S. collections, thirteen taxa representing twelve species were identified, including: G. curtisii, G. lucidum sensu stricto, G. martinicense, G. oregonense, G. polychromum, G. ravenelii, G. sessile, G. tsugae, G. tuberculosum, G. cf. weberianum, G. zonatum, and Tomophagus colossus (syn. G. colossus). The species G. meredithiae is synonymized with G. curtisii, and considered a physiological variant that specializes in decay of pines. The designation G. curtisii f.sp. meredithiae forma specialis nov. is proposed. Species such as G. curtisii and G. sessile, once considered as G. lucidum sensu lato, were found to be divergent from one another, and highly divergent from G. lucidum sensu stricto. Morphological characteristics such as context tissue color and features (e.g. melanoid bands), basidiospore shape and size, geographic location, and host preference were found to aid in species identification. Surprisingly, G. lucidum sensu stricto was found in the U.S., but only in geographically restricted areas of northern Utah and California. These collections appear to have resulted from the introduction of this species into the United States possibly from mushroom growers producing G. lucidum outdoors. Overall, this study clarifies the chaotic taxonomy of the laccate Ganoderma in the United States, and will help to remove ambiguities from future studies focusing on the North American species of laccate Ganoderma.

Conclusion

Diagnosing species accurately is critical for studying the biology and ecology of fungi. Diagnostic characters such as DNA sequence, context tissue features, chlamydospores and geography were important for accurate species identification within the laccate Ganoderma species present in the U.S. From the 507 samples studied, thirteen taxa and twelve species of the Ganodermataceae are present in the United States and include: G. curtisii, G. curtisii f.sp. meredithiae, G. lucidum sensu stricto, G. martinicense, G. oregonense, G. polychromum, G. ravenelii, G. sessile, G. tsugae, G. tuberculosum, G. cf. weberianum, G. zonatum, and Tomophagus colossus. This study has unraveled some of the taxonomic difficulties associated with the laccate Ganoderma species that were once all considered as G. lucidum sensu lato. For example, all FLAS and NCSCLG herbarium collections collected from the U.S. and labeled as G. lucidum were not G. lucidum sensu stricto, and have been reannotated to one of the following species: G. curtisii, G. martinicense, G. sessile and G. tuberculosum. In addition, the presented data showed the ITS region, which is the most widely-used and important fungal barcode, is diagnostic for most species and subclades, but some species, especially in Clade B are not resolved. The tef1α locus captured more genetic diversity and is better at diagnosing the laccate Ganoderma to species level. However, there are more ITS sequences in GenBank compared to tef1α, and we recommend using both ITS and tef1α to avoid missing species with fewer accessioned sequences. As genome sequencing becomes more affordable, phylogenomics will be the most robust method to understand evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of speciation, which will undoubtedly resolve the Ganodermataceae. Further studies into the evolutionary history of the laccate Ganoderma species in the United States will elucidate important ecological relationships and more detailed geographic distribution patterns. Furthermore, sequencing more loci should be the focus of future studies, and could potentially resolve more cryptic species present in the U.S.

STUDY 3

Total Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Ganoderma Curtisii extracts

Abstract

Fungi of the Ganoderma genus contain bioactive components such as terpenoids, polysaccharides, steroids, phenolic compounds and glycoproteins. Polysaccharides, triterpenes and phenolic compounds have antioxidant properties. Objective: To determine the antioxidant activity of the hydro alcoholic and the ethanolic extracts, and polysaccharides content of Ganoderma curtisii collected in Michoacan, Mexico.

Conclusion

Scavenging effects from Ganoderma extracts on DPPH radical increased with the concentrations of the extract. The maximum inhibition percentage for ethanol extracts, hydroalcoholic extracts and polysaccharides at a concentration of 1mg/ml, was 90.5%, 89.10% and 83.09%, respectively, while that of ascorbic acid was 96.4%. Phenolic compounds present in the hydroalcoholic extracts (35.6313 ± 0.1868 mg GAE/g) and ethanol (49.1467±0.1692 mg GAE/g) also contribute to increased antioxidant activity observed in these extracts. These results suggest that analyzed fungi are of potential interest as sources of strong natural antioxidants that could be used in the food nutrition and industries.

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