Ajmoda (Apium Graveolens, Celery)

STUDY 1

An Updated Phytopharmacological Review on Medicinal Plant of Arab Region: Apium graveolens Linn

Abstract

Apium graveolens Linn. (Karafs) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of the various ailments. There is a need to explore and authenticate the pharmacological profile and medicinal importance of the Karafs. In this paper, the literature and the published work on Apium were collected using online resources “Google scholar”, “Web of science”, “Scopus” and “PubMed”. Each of the pharmacological activity was searched individually using the keywords “Apium/Karafs/Apium graveolens + individual pharmacological activity”. We documented the most cited and most recent literatures. The current findings illuminate the importance Karafs in the traditional medicine and their impact in treating various diseases. This review strongly supports the fact that the Apium has emerged as a good source of medicine in treating various diseases. There is also a need to isolate the bioactive phytochemicals present in this plant.

Conclusion

The ancient literature and the practice among the local population clearly indicate that herbal medicine is being practiced in the Arab region since long back. In this review, we documented the medicinal importance of the A. graveolens (Karafs) that is being used as anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, laxative, sedative stimulants in the Arab traditional medicine. The description of the plants and its medicinal importance as per the old Arab literature has been summarized. In addition, the phytochemical investigation the pharmacological activity which has been carried out so far has been summarized. There is a need to preserve the pharmacological profile and the medicinal importance of the Karafs. There is also need to isolate the bioactive phytochemicals that are present in the plants. Karafs needs effective utilization to make a hallmark to treat the various diseases and to be available for ordinary population.

STUDY 2

The antioxidant and neurochemical activity of Apium graveolens L. and its ameliorative effect on MPTP-induced Parkinson-like symptoms in mice

Abstract

Apium graveolens L. is a traditional Chinese medicine prescribed as a treatment for hypertension, gout, and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the neuroprotective effects of A. graveolens extract against a Parkinson’s disease (PD) model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6 mice.

Conclusion

AGME could offer a novel approach to the treatment of Parkinsonism. Our in vivo study demonstrated that the extract is able to ameliorate behavioral impairments, improve oxidative stress parameters, decrease the activity of MAO-A and B, and protect dopaminergic neurons. Our finding establishes this plant extract as a promising candidate for the prevention or treatment of PD. Still, further studies are required to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action in greater detail.

STUDY 3

The effects of celery leaf (apium graveolens L.) treatment on blood glucose and insulin levels in elderly pre-diabetics

Abstract

Insulin is a hormone that regulates how carbohydrates are metabolized.1 It is produced by the b-cells of pancreas.1 Abnormalities in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both can lead to disturbances in glucose metabolism and occurrences of hyperglycemia.2 Clinically, hyperglycemia is one of the markers of pre-diabetes and diabetes.2,3 Pre-diabetes is a condition involving an increase in blood glucose levels above normal, but it does not meet the criteria for diabetes.3 The prevalence of pre-diabetes in Indonesia is roughly 10% of the total population.3 Chronic hyperglycemia and uncontrolled pre-diabetes are among the causes of diabetes mellitus (DM).4 Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health problem worldwide and is a social and economic burden.4,5 Indonesia is ranked fourth among countries with the largest number of diabetics, after India, China, and the United States.6 Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease, a lifetime risk, and a silent killer. It can cause premature death.7-9 Uncontrolled DM can cause co-morbidities and multiple complications. Its complications include retinopathy (blindness), neuropathy, nephropathy (renal disease), ulceration, amputation and cardiovascular disease.2,10 Prevention and treatment of DM is necessary to control the surge in the number of diabetics.11-12

The principles of therapy for diabetic patients consist of lifestyle modification (diet and physical activity) and taking anti-diabetic drugs regularly.7-11 Long-term use of anti-diabetic drugs has an impact on economic costs for DM patients and national health care systems.10 Long-term use of anti-diabetic chemicals also has many side effects and complications, including bone problems, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease.2,13 Therefore, it is necessary to develop new alternative anti-diabetic drugs that have few side effects and are inexpensive. This challenge is still significant worldwide, including in Indonesia. Indonesians have long used medicinal plants, traditionally called “jamu”, to manage various diseases.14-15 Celery (Apium graveolens L.) in Bahasa Indonesian is called “seledri”. Celery is one of the medicinal plants that has potential as an anti-diabetic drug.16 It is one of more than 1200 plants with a hypoglycemic effect.16,17 Celery is low cost and is easily obtained in Indonesia. Therefore, we studied celery for its effects on anti-hyperglycemia in elderly pre-diabetics. A study of the literature revealed that celery had hypoglycemic activity, showing the necessity of conducting research.16,17

We conducted a preliminary study using male rats. The results of that study showed a significant decrease (63.3%; p=0.001) in blood glucose levels after 10 days of treatment with 50 mg/dL dose of celery. The results of this preliminary study formed the basis with which we conducted this study using pre-diabetic subjects.

Conclusion

In conclusion, celery leaf extract reduced pre-prandial blood glucose levels and post-prandial blood glucose levels, but it slightly increased plasma insulin levels in elderly pre-diabetics. These findings indicate a lack of association between blood glucose levels and insulin plasma in elderly pre-diabetics.

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